Page 5 - XLEquine - Plan Prevent Protect - Biosecurity Booklet

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Disease causing agent
bacteria of the salmonella species
Incubation period
variable, the onset of signs can be precipitated by stress, concurrent
disease, compromised immunity or antibiotic therapy
horses may be silent carriers of the bacteria
contact with environment contaminated by infected faeces (horse’s or
other species’)
Signs you will see
several forms of the disease:
- mild form: fever, mild colic pain, dullness, loss of appetite
- severe form: as above but with severe, malodorous diarrhoea, marked
weight loss
- the very acute form is very frequently fatal
septicaemia and blood-borne infections (e.g.“joint-ill”) possible but more
likely in foals
identification of the bacteria in faeces or rectal biopsy - can be difficult,
repeated samples may be required
antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and supportive therapy
good hygiene and biosecurity to prevent the introduction and potential
spread of salmonella
no vaccine is available
action in an outbreak:
- quick and strict isolation of infected animals
- vigorous disinfection of stable, tack, etc. with hospital-grade disinfectant
- identification of carriers by repeated faeces testing
Intestinal disease -
Disease causing agent
fungus of the
Incubation period
up to 30 days
direct contact with infected horse, contaminated tack, brushes, rugs, and
contact with fences and buildings used by infected cattle
Signs you will see
areas of hair loss (usually non-itchy) with flaky or scabby skin, may be red
and oozing in some cases
more frequent on neck, girth and saddle areas
fungal culture of a hair pluck sample, which can take up to 2 weeks
antifungal preparations recommended to reduce risk of spread to other
good hygiene and the use of separate tack and rugs
prompt isolation and treatment of infected animals, tack, stable, fences
and horseboxes with antifungal preparations
Skin disease -
All cases of diarrhoea should be
in isolated and investigated as
potentially caused by Salmonella
bacteria. Extra precautions should
be taken as some types can infect
humans too.
Patchy hair loss and coat changes
are seen with ringworm.
Risk of transmission to humans so wear gloves and protective clothing when handling the horse
Capable of affecting humans (zoonosis), so extreme care required when handling infected
animals and contaminated materials. All confirmed cases will be reported to Environmental
Health who may contact you if there is risk to human health
Common contagious equine diseases in the UK
Plan. Prevent. Protect